Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, refers to a group of diseases that cause airflow blockage and breathing-related problems.
Symptoms of COPD, Treatments for COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, refers to a group of diseases that cause airflow blockage and breathing-related problems. It’s typically caused by long-term exposure to irritating gases or particulate matter, most often from cigarette smoke. People with COPD are at increased risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer, and a variety of other conditions. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most common conditions that contribute to COPD.

Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. Emphysema is a condition in which the alveoli at the end of the smallest air passages (bronchioles) of the lungs are destroyed as a result of damaging exposure to cigarette smoke and other irritating gases and particulate matter.


COPD symptoms often don’t appear until significant lung damage has occurred, and they usually worsen over time, particularly if smoking exposure continues. Signs and symptoms of COPD may include shortness of breath, especially during physical activities, wheezing, chest tightness, a chronic cough that may produce mucus (sputum), frequent respiratory infections, lack of energy, unintended weight loss (in later stages), swelling in ankles, feet or legs.


COPD treatment can alleviate symptoms, decrease the frequency and severity of exacerbations, and increase exercise tolerance. Treatment options include quitting smoking, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, steroids, inhalers, Theophylline, and antibiotics. Surgery is an option for some people with some forms of severe emphysema who aren’t helped sufficiently by medications alone. Surgical options include Lung volume reduction surgery, lung transplants, and bullectomies.

The table below includes the most commonly used ICD-10 Codes for COPD:

ICD-10 Chapter Codes Code Description
10 J40 Bronchitis, not specified as acute or chronic
10 J41.0 Simple chronic bronchitis
10 J41.1 Mucopurulent chronic bronchitis
10 J41.8 Mixed simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis
10 J42 Unspecified chronic bronchitis
10 J43.0 Unilateral pulmonary emphysema [MacLeod’s syndrome]
10 J43.1 Panlobular emphysema
10 J43.2 Centrilobular emphysema
10 J43.8 Other emphysema
10 J43.9 Emphysema, unspecified
10 J44.0 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with (acute) lower respiratory infection
10 J44.1 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with (acute) exacerbation
10 J44.9 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, unspecified

Author: Tonoya Ahmed

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