Dementia is a general term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving, and other thinking abilities that are severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia. Dementia is not a single disease; it’s an overall term — like heart disease — that covers a wide range of specific medical conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease. Disorders grouped under the general term “dementia” are caused by abnormal brain changes.
These changes trigger a decline in thinking skills, also known as cognitive abilities, severe enough to impair daily life and independent function. They also affect behavior, feelings, and relationships. Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 60-80% of cases. Vascular dementia, which occurs because of microscopic bleeding and blood vessel blockage in the brain, is the second most common cause of dementia. Those who experience the brain changes in multiple types of dementia simultaneously have mixed dementia. There are many other conditions that can cause symptoms of dementia, including some that are reversible, such as thyroid problems and vitamin deficiencies. Dementia is often incorrectly referred to as “senility” or “senile dementia,” which reflects the formerly widespread but incorrect belief that serious mental decline is a normal part of aging.
Signs of dementia can vary greatly. Examples include problems with short-term memory, keeping track of a purse or wallet, paying bills, planning and preparing meals, remembering appointments, traveling out of the neighborhood.
Most types of dementia can’t be cured, but there are ways to manage your symptoms. The following medications are used to temporarily improve dementia symptoms: cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, or other medications to treat other symptoms or conditions, such as depression, sleep disturbances, hallucinations, and parkinsonism. Several dementia symptoms and behavior problems might be treated initially using non-drug approaches, such as occupational therapy, modifying the environment, and simplifying tasks.
The table below includes the most commonly used ICD-10 codes for dementia and most commonly used ICD-10 codes for Alzheimer’s dementia:
|ICD-10 Chapter||Codes||Code Description|
|5||F01.50||Vascular dementia without behavioral disturbance|
|5||F01.51||Vascular dementia with behavioral disturbance|
|5||F02.80||Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere without behavioral disturbance|
|5||F02.81||Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere with behavioral disturbance|
|5||F03.90||Unspecified dementia without behavioral disturbance|
|5||F03.91||Unspecified dementia with behavioral disturbance|
|6||G30.0||Alzheimer’s disease with early-onset|
|6||G30.1||Alzheimer’s disease with late-onset|
|6||G30.8||Other Alzheimer’s disease|
|6||G30.9||Alzheimer’s disease, unspecified|
|6||G31.09||Other frontotemporal dementia|
|6||G31.1||Senile degeneration of brain, not elsewhere classified|
|6||G31.2||Degeneration of nervous system due to alcohol|
|6||G31.83||Dementia with Lewy bodies|
|6||G31.84||Mild cognitive impairment, so stated|
|6||G31.89||Other specified degenerative diseases of nervous system|
|6||G31.9||Degenerative disease of nervous system, unspecified|
|6||G32.0||Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord in diseases classified elsewhere|
|6||G32.81||Cerebellar ataxia in diseases classified elsewhere|
|6||G32.89||Other specified degenerative disorders of nervous system in diseases classified elsewhere|
Author: Tonoya Ahmed